Find out when/who dropped an object without auditing

If your environment doesn’t have any kind of auditing and you need to find since when an object was dropped.

If you have the default trace enabled (good practice) you can track when the object was dropped and determine if that was the root cause for some performance issue for example.

The point here is to find the root cause of an issue, not point the finger to who did it ūüėČ

First, let’s check what kind of events the default trace has

SELECT DISTINCT Trace.EventID
        , TraceEvents.NAME AS Event_Desc
 FROM ::fn_trace_geteventinfo(1) Trace
 JOIN sys.trace_events TraceEvents ON Trace.eventID = TraceEvents.trace_event_id 

You are going to see the events

The next step is get the default trace path

SELECT path
 FROM sys.traces
 WHERE is_default = 1;

Knowing the path you can get all the files name using xp_cmdshell for example

EXEC xp_cmdshell 'dir e:\"Program Files"\"Microsoft SQL Server"\"MSSQL10.MSSQLSERVER"\MSSQL\*.trc'

Grab the file name you want and change the script below

SELECT 
    CASE EventClass
        WHEN 46 THEN 'Object:Created'
        WHEN 47 THEN 'Object:Deleted'
        WHEN 164 THEN 'Object:Altered'
    END
    , DatabaseName
    , ObjectName
    , HostName
    , ApplicationName
    , LoginName
    , StartTime
 FROM ::fn_trace_gettable('C:\Program Files\Microsoft SQL Server\MSSQL14.MSSQLSERVER\MSSQL\Log\your_file_name.trc', DEFAULT)
 WHERE 
    EventClass IN (46,47,164) 
    AND EventSubclass = 0 
 ORDER BY StartTime DESC

In my scenario what is showing is the creating object in the bottom with some index creation, drop index, object alter (it’s not telling what kind of change), create a new object and alter (the primary key creates the index and alter the table adding the constraint).

Plus you can see the login name and when the action was made. ūüėČ

T-SQL script to get detailed login permissions

This script is very helpful when you need to know all the permissions a user have in detail.

 

SELECT distinct 
@@SERVERNAME as ServerName
, UserName as LoginName
, UserType as LoginType
, DatabaseUserName
, Role
, PermissionType
, PermissionState
, DatabaseName = db_name()
, ObjectName  -- can be an object or the entire database
, ObjectType
, ColumnName
--	, item -- used to check consistencies in each subquery
FROM (
SELECT  
    UserName = princ.name,
    UserType = CASE princ.type
                    WHEN 'S' THEN 'SQL'
                    WHEN 'U' THEN 'Windows'
					WHEN 'G' THEN 'Windows Group'
					WHEN 'R' THEN 'Database Role'
					ELSE princ.type 
                END,  
    DatabaseUserName = princ.name,       
    Role = princ.name,      
    PermissionType = perm.permission_name,       
    PermissionState = perm.state_desc,       
    ObjectType = obj.type_desc,
    ObjectName = coalesce(OBJECT_NAME(perm.major_id), db_name()),
    ColumnName = col.name,
	1 as item
FROM    
    sys.database_principals princ  
LEFT JOIN sys.login_token ulogin on princ.sid = ulogin.sid
LEFT JOIN sys.database_permissions perm ON perm.grantee_principal_id = princ.principal_id
LEFT JOIN sys.columns col ON col.object_id = perm.major_id AND col.column_id = perm.minor_id
LEFT JOIN sys.objects obj ON perm.major_id = obj.object_id
WHERE perm.permission_name <> 'CONNECT' 
UNION
SELECT  
    UserName =  memberprinc.name ,
    UserType = CASE memberprinc.type
                    WHEN 'S' THEN 'SQL'
                    WHEN 'U' THEN 'Windows'
					WHEN 'G' THEN 'Windows Group'
					WHEN 'R' THEN 'Database Role'
					else memberprinc.type 
                END, 
    DatabaseUserName = memberprinc.name,   
    Role = roleprinc.name,      
    PermissionType = perm.permission_name,       
    PermissionState = perm.state_desc,       
    ObjectType = obj.type_desc,
    ObjectName = db_name(),
    ColumnName = col.name,
	2 as item
FROM    
    sys.database_role_members members
INNER JOIN sys.database_principals roleprinc ON roleprinc.principal_id = members.role_principal_id
INNER JOIN sys.database_principals memberprinc ON memberprinc.principal_id = members.member_principal_id
LEFT JOIN sys.login_token ulogin on memberprinc.sid = ulogin.sid
LEFT JOIN sys.database_permissions perm ON perm.grantee_principal_id = roleprinc.principal_id
LEFT JOIN sys.columns col on col.object_id = perm.major_id AND col.column_id = perm.minor_id
LEFT JOIN sys.objects obj ON perm.major_id = obj.object_id
UNION
SELECT  
    UserName = roleprinc.name,
    UserType = 
	CASE roleprinc.type
                    WHEN 'S' THEN 'SQL'
                    WHEN 'U' THEN 'Windows'
					WHEN 'G' THEN 'Windows Group'
					WHEN 'R' THEN 'Database Role'
					ELSE roleprinc.type 
                END,  
    DatabaseUserName = roleprinc.name,
    Role = roleprinc.name,      
    PermissionType = perm.permission_name,       
    PermissionState = perm.state_desc,       
    ObjectType = obj.type_desc,
    ObjectName = coalesce(OBJECT_NAME(perm.major_id), db_name()),
    ColumnName = col.name,
	3 as item
FROM    
    sys.database_principals roleprinc 
LEFT JOIN sys.database_permissions perm ON perm.grantee_principal_id = roleprinc.principal_id
LEFT JOIN sys.columns col on col.object_id = perm.major_id AND col.column_id = perm.minor_id                   
LEFT JOIN sys.objects obj ON obj.object_id = perm.major_id
UNION
SELECT 
    UserName = princ.name collate Latin1_General_CI_AS,
    UserType = CASE princ.type
                    WHEN 'S' THEN 'SQL'
                    WHEN 'U' THEN 'Windows'
					WHEN 'G' THEN 'Windows Group'
					WHEN 'R' THEN 'Database Role'
					ELSE princ.type 
                END ,  
    DatabaseUserName = princ.name collate Latin1_General_CI_AS,
    Role =  CASE 
                WHEN logins.sysadmin = 1 THEN 'sysadmin'
                WHEN logins.securityadmin = 1 THEN 'securityadmin'
                WHEN logins.serveradmin = 1 THEN 'serveradmin'
                WHEN logins.setupadmin = 1 THEN 'setupadmin'
                WHEN logins.processadmin = 1 THEN 'processadmin'
                WHEN logins.diskadmin = 1 THEN 'diskadmin'
                WHEN logins.dbcreator = 1 THEN 'dbcreator'
                WHEN logins.bulkadmin = 1 THEN 'bulkadmin'
                ELSE 'Public' 
            END,
    PermissionType	= perm.permission_name,
    PermissionState = 'GRANT',
    ObjectType		= NULL,
    ObjectName		= princ.default_database_name,
    ColumnName		= NULL,
	4 as item
FROM sys.server_principals princ 
INNER JOIN sys.syslogins logins ON princ.sid = logins.sid 
LEFT JOIN sys.database_permissions perm ON perm.grantee_principal_id = princ.principal_id
WHERE princ.type  <> 'R' AND princ.name NOT LIKE '##%'
) P  
where (Role <> 'Public' or ObjectName = db_name())
ORDER BY
P.DatabaseUserName,
P.ObjectName,
P.ColumnName,
P.PermissionType,
P.PermissionState,
P.ObjectType

Method to update LOB data with minimal log

Use the .WRITE (expression, @Offset,@Length) clause to perform a partial or full update of varchar(max), nvarchar(max), and varbinary(max) data types.

For example, a partial update of a varchar(max) column might delete or modify only the first 200 characters of the column, whereas a full update would delete or modify all the data in the column. .WRITE updates that insert or append new data are minimally logged if the database recovery model is set to bulk-logged or simple.

UPDATE <table_or_view_name>
SET column_name.WRITE (expression, @offset, @length)
FROM <table_source>
WHERE <search_condition>

expression is the value that is copied to column_name. expression must evaluate to or be able to be implicitly cast to the column_name type. If expression is set to NULL, @Length is ignored, and the value in column_nameis truncated at the specified @Offset.

@Offset is the starting point in the value of column_name at which expression is written. @Offset is a zero-based ordinal position, is bigint, and cannot be a negative number. If @Offset is NULL, the update operation appends expression at the end of the existing column_name value and @Length is ignored. If @Offset is greater than the length of the column_name value, the Database Engine returns an error. If @Offset plus @Length exceeds the end of the underlying value in the column, the deletion occurs up to the last character of the value. If @Offset plus LEN(expression) is greater than the underlying declared size, an error is raised.

@Length is the length of the section in the column, starting from @Offset, that is replaced by expression. @Length is bigint and cannot be a negative number. If @Length is NULL, the update operation removes all data from @Offset to the end of the column_name value.

The regular update statement results in overwriting the entire string using full logging and it’s very inefficient when dealing with large value updates.

Note: The update using WRITE method will fail if the value is null.

More information about performance in my tip on MSSQLTips

 

 

Using SQL Operations Studio Agent

SQL Operations Studio Agent is visual way to see, edit and create SQL Server jobs and everybody was asking this feature when SQL Operations Studio appears.

To install this the agent follow the link https://docs.microsoft.com/en-us/sql/sql-operations-studio/sql-server-agent-extension?view=sql-server-2017.

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Installing the agent 

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With the extension installed, right-click on the instance -> Manage to see the server jobs 

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But, not everything is working. I tried to edit a job step and didn’t work. For example, the Ola hallengren maintenace scripts after created wasn’t possible to change using the GUI differently than using SSMS.

Even trying to using the GUI to create a new step didn’t work and I changed using TSQL.

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The script is available in my Git here to download. After changed the script I succeeded ran it.

With extensions we have more features available to work with SQL Operations Studio and is improving the utilization. Also you can create your own widget. In my tip on MSSQLTips.com I’m showing how to create it.

I recommend install SQL Server Agent, Profiler, Reports and certainly whoisactive

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